On March 16, as part of the celebration of the Orthodox Book Day, the clergy of the St. John the Baptist Cathedral in Kumertau met with students of the local mining college.
This holiday was established in 2009 on the initiative of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill by the decision of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The holiday is timed to a memorable date: March 14, 1564 at the Moscow Printing House, Deacon Ivan Fedorov published the first printed book in Russia – “The Apostle”. The first Orthodox printed books became the basis for the formation of Slavic and Russian civilization.
His Eminence Nicholas, Bishop of Kumertau and Salavat of the Russian Orthodox Church, noted the importance of universal education and the importance of the Orthodox Book in the history of education in the Russian state.
“My dear, on the Days of the Orthodox Book, I wish you – read books! The book is a source of knowledge, spirituality, morality, a custodian of history and a teacher! Russian education has always had a spiritual, moral character. Spirituality, inherited from Russian magicians and Orthodox monasteries, at other times was enriched by the ideas of Russian thinkers, philosophers and educators about the special universal purpose of man. The system of education and upbringing in Russia was formed under the influence of the Orthodox religion. The notions of moral norms and rules of conduct approved with its help contained two sides: the formation of a positive image to follow and the establishment of a system of prohibitions that did not allow shortcomings to turn into vices, “said Vladyka.
The adoption of Christianity played a revolutionary role in the development of education and upbringing, put the church, monasteries, their ministers, monks, elders to the forefront in the accumulation of knowledge, the formation of the system of education and upbringing. The pedagogical component in the dissemination of knowledge has intensified. The dogmas of the new faith became the basis of both upbringing and education. The instructive literature of the Kievan Rus period is represented by many amazing works, including Svyatoslav’s “Izbornik” of 1703, “Izbornik” of 1075, “A Word about Igor’s Regiment”, “Teachings of Vladimir Monomakh”, “Prayer of Daniel Zatochnik”.
The main social mission of Christianity was not only that the Slavic civilization adopted a new harmonious system of faith: from its inception, Christianity was an educational religion. The greatest teacher was Jesus Christ himself, who instructed his apostles: “Go and make disciples of all nations.” The family, with the advent of Christianity, became a school of upbringing and education at the same time.
“And today the upbringing of our children, the moral, spiritual and patriotic component depends on what our children read and watch. The parent must teach the child to learn! Teach children to read, educate and in the future we will get educated, educated and inspired citizens of Russia. Each of our temples has libraries open to all. There are spiritual and parish Sunday schools, where children learn the basics of the Orthodox faith, history, traditions and holidays. Orthodoxy was, is and will be a pillar of Russia’s spiritual education, “said Bishop Kumertausky and Salavatsky.
During the meeting with college students, priest Vladimir Rafikov told the children about the history of this holiday, noting that the destruction of culture, after which the people disappear, begins with the loss of reading habits, that books are an investment of goodness, wisdom, patience, love, instill the ability to listen and understand another person, which has always been inherent in our people.
The rector of the church, priest Vladimir Bykov, in his welcoming speech to the students stressed that books are a source of experience of generations, wisdom and largely determine the identity of the people.
“Smartphones, gadgets, the Internet, which we rely on today, may disappear overnight, but the book you have at home will not disappear, it is always with you,” he said.
Then the abbot acquainted the audience with the biography of the Rev. Varsonofy Optinsky and announced the Orthodox book “Spiritual Conversations. Cell notes “, dedicated to him. He cited several quotes from the book, discussed with the children the need for spiritual development.
After the conversation, the priest Vladimir Bykov presented the “Holy Gospel” to those who wished, and then the students were offered an excursion to the Orthodox Library of the Spiritual and Educational Center, as well as to the gym. Many of the guys enjoyed their physical abilities in the gym, and some of them signed up for classes.
If we turn to history, the school as a “social institution” began to take shape in 988, it was from this year that Prince Vladimir “sowed the book word in the hearts of faithful people.” Christianity gave birth to a great many Russian sages, thinkers, philosophers. The centers of education in feudal Russia were monasteries. The largest of them not only taught literacy, but also prepared for church and public service. Such centers of education were the monasteries: Chudov, Spaso-Andronikovsky, Simonov, Trinity-Sergiev, Kiev-Pechersk, Holy Dormition Pechersk and others.
Our great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin most successfully and figuratively revealed the role of monasteries: “We owe our history to monks, and therefore to our enlightenment.”
Dialectics, which included theology, arithmetic, ethics, music, politics, economics, and rhetoric, were studied in monastic schools. “A Word about Igor’s Regiment”, “Prayer of Daniel Zatochnik”, “Kiev-Pechersk Paterik” were written in the monasteries. The most complete picture of all the parameters of the life of the monasteries is given by the lives of the saints, that is, the biographical literature. Education and upbringing were perceived here as a whole and were most fully embodied in the sermons, which carried moral and pedagogical, social and epistemological charges.
The first state document, which set out the tasks in the field of education, was the Resolution of the Hundred-Headed Council of 1551. In Russia, schools began to be established in which the training of clergy was combined with the education of youth in the spirit of education.
In seventeenth-century Russia, two forms of education became widespread: a) schools in which people of “all ranks and ranks”, children of the “glorious and poor” and up to the last farmers were educated; b) home education of children of the nobility. Boris Godunov founded his plan of public education, which planned to cover Russia with a network of educational schools, to establish a university in Moscow, to send young people abroad to study various sciences and foreign languages.
The appearance of the first supporters of secular education dates back to the 17th century. For the first time the problem of compatibility of faith and knowledge was substantiated in the works of Simeon Polotsky (1629-1680), Carnon Istomin (1650-1717), Sylvester Medvedev (1641-1691).
The education system in Russia has acquired its own features and characteristics. The entire population was covered by the parish education system, in which the leading role belonged to sermons, instructions and teachings. The leading role in public education remained with the church, monasteries and the clergy.
In 1865 the Slavic-Greco-Roman Academy was organized in Moscow. This was the beginning of classical higher education in Russia. Russian schools in which teaching was conducted in Russian were widely developed. In 1721, the Spiritual Regulations were published, according to which the training of the clergy was entrusted to bishop’s schools and seminaries. On January 28, 1724, the Senate Decree on the Establishment of the Academy of Sciences and Arts was issued. Peter’s system of education, being primarily professional, bore many features of the future class school. The name of Peter the Great is associated with the beginning of military and engineering education in Russia. On January 12, 1735, the Moscow University was founded by the Decree of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. Catherine the Second made her adjustments to the system of public education: “every person must be brought up in the consciousness of his duty to the Supreme Being, society, to himself.”