Books

Glavarkhiv – about the development of children’s literature / City news / Moscow site

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The head archive presented children’s editions from its funds for the International Children’s Book Day. Today you can find works created by poets Eugene Dolmatovsky and Boris Turganov, philologist Varvara Adrianova-Peretz, as well as publications of the society “I.D. Sytin and K ° “, founded in 1882.

The first children’s books

The first works for children can be found on Novgorod birch-bark deeds of the XI-XII centuries. Instructive and humorous appeals to children were left on them. Then in the XII-XIII centuries fairy tales and spiritual and moral texts became part of the educational process. And under Peter I began to prepare the first translated literature for children.

Children’s books of the XIX – early XX century met the requirements of realism, which could be seen in the texts and illustrations. In those years, one of the most famous publishing houses was the partnership “I.D. Sytin and K ° ». The success of the bookseller Ivan Sytin was due to the release of inexpensive illustrated publications for ordinary people. Early children’s editions of the society have been preserved in the Glavarkhiv, including “Gulliver at the Dwarfs”, “Uncle Tom’s Hut”, “Four-Legged Rogue”, “My Birthday”, the now little-known Russian folk tale “The Enemy”.

The post-revolutionary period is notable for the fact that books, including children’s books, were designed by outstanding illustrators. Among them are prominent representatives of the artistic avant-garde Vera Ermolaeva, Nina Lyubavina, Elena Turova, Nikolai Lapshin and Yuri Annenkov.

And at the origins of the artistic traditions of the publishing house “Detgiz” was a talented artist Vladimir Lebedev. Unofficially, this publishing house was called “Lebedev University”. Dozens of St. Petersburg illustrators worked there, including Yuri Vasnetsov, Yevgeny Charushin, Alexei Pakhomov and Nikolai Tyrsa.

Literature in Soviet and wartime

In Soviet times, the publication of children’s publications was controlled by the state. Then the book was entrusted with the task of not only moral and aesthetic, but also ideological education. We needed such literature that would tell children about the five-year plan, collectivization, percussion. Maxim Gorky, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Mikhail Prishvin, Arkady Gaidar, Boris Zhitkov, Vitaly Bianchi and Lev Kassil created books for children in those years. Leading children’s writers were Samuel Marshak, Korney Chukovsky, Sergei Mikhalkov and Agnia Barto.

The very first editions of the poetess’s children’s books for 1926–1928 are kept in the Villerov-Barto family fund: “Shurkin mushroom”, “Borka-drum”, “Night”, “Biryulki”. In 1928, Barto’s book “Brothers” was published, dedicated to children of different nations. It is also among the documents of the fund. And in the personal fund of the Hero of the Soviet Union Natalia Kovshova her favorite book by Arkady Gaidar “Military Secret” of 1936 edition is presented.

Children’s books continued to be published during the Great Patriotic War. At the time, the plot was based on a heroic-adventurous model of a child’s behavior in war. The funds of the poet Boris Turganov and journalist Gleb Skorokhodov include children’s books of those years – the novel by Joseph Likstanov “The Adventures of Jung” and a collection of poems by Soviet poets “For the Motherland.”

The 1950s and 1960s can be called a renaissance of children’s literature. There are more children’s writers and publications. The documentary fund of Moscow houses children’s books of these years by writers Sergei Baruzdin and Valentina Oseeva.

Acquaintance with the heroes of fairy tales, interactive quests and meetings with writers: VDNH will celebrate the International Children’s Book Day

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